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A bar-code-like pattern, with naturalist: pioneer of vaccination. They had similar interests and became life- for example, a suspected rapist.
Bars of the same long friends; Jenner did well, and could have con- size and position in the gels point to the samples tinued in London, but chose to return to his native having the same genotype.
The process can be village Berkeley, in Gloucestershire to practise repeated, say, four times, each time using a radioac- medicine.
It was known that sur- vivors are immune to reinfection and that inocula- tion from a patient with a mild attack of the disease protected against it, but this carried the risk of severe or fatal illness.
Jenner was told by a patient that country people who had cowpox vaccinia; a rather rare disease of the udders of cows, transmittable to humans and not severe did not afterwards become smallpox victims.
Jenner found 10 such cases. He went on to show that matter from the boy fluid from a vesicle could be used to inoculate other individuals and passed by inoculation from person to person indefinitely without losing its protective effect.
He used a thorn for inoculations. After finding that the dried vaccine retained its potency for a few months, he sent a sample to President Thomas Jefferson, who inoculated his family and neighbours at Monticello.
Sophia Jex-Blake then began a heated campaign for acceptance into Edinburgh University to study medicine.
After initial acceptance by the Senate of separate classes for women, five women, including Jex-Blake, matriculated in Difficulties occurred when tutors were reluctant to teach the women; they were then refused admittance to the Royal Infirmary.
After further obstacles she brought a legal action against the university for not honour- ing its contract to admit the women to degree examinations; judgement in their favour was reversed in on the grounds that in admitting Edward Jenner the women to matriculation the university had not universally welcomed and by was much acted ultra vires.
In Britain it was made compulsory in , Sophia Jex-Blake had a tempestuous personality, and this was enforced by Smallpox became abrasive and emotional.
Her battles were a gift to the first major disease to be fully overcome, at least the newspapers but her struggles and humiliations in civilized communities; by it was officially had the value of changing public opinion.
In extinct, as there were no recorded cases. It is now she gathered together a group of sympathetic known that smallpox variola is one of a group of people to form the London School of Medicine for related pox diseases, whose causal agent is a rather Women, which opened in with a staff of lec- large virus of high virulence.
Inoculation of the turers including Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. In he studied the unusual brood-parasite nesting of the Russell Gurney Enabling Act went through the cockoo.
He also wrote anti-slavery songs; test women. Clinical work was secured when the he was highly regarded by Napoleon who had his Royal Free Hospital admitted women students in army inoculated and by the British government, Her troversy.
It was not until that the University of brother Thomas William became headmaster of Edinburgh admitted women to graduate in medi- Rugby and dean of Wells.
See panel overleaf. In she went to gist: discovered Australopithecus afarensis, the oldest the USA to study medicine at Boston with Lucy hominid yet found.
Sewall and Elizabeth Blackwell, but returned to After graduating in anthropology from the Univer- England on the death of her father in Her work on diseases of the a standard medical textbook until the 16th-c.
She uterus, published in , was used as a textbook for classified diseases as inherited, contagious and many years. Formal education in medicine, especially for the University of Marbourg, and the Order of Merit by women, became increasingly difficult in Europe.
In the King of Prussia. Taught the example of the University of Paris, and excluded by her physician father alongside her brother, she women.
Many universities founded in the 12th- and petitioned Frederick II of Prussia for permission to 13th-c also debarred women; licences to practise enter the University of Halle.
However some tising medicine. Many Medicine. Charlotte von Siebold Heidenreich studied with a relative and followed their profession.
In England, the dissolution of Queen Victoria. In Switzerland the first prevented progress in the medical education of woman graduated in ; Sweden gave women women.
During his illness she lectured in Norway, by Act of Parliament, opened its doors to his place, with the consent of the university, and on women in and its first female graduated in his death was elected, without a degree, as professor In the Netherlands Aletta Jacobs graduated in and modellatrice to the chair of anatomy in Her In the first women graduated in Spain work became internationally famous.
Maria della and Portugal. In she became director of the the name used by a woman who, disguised as a man, School for Midwives and a member of the French graduated from Edinburgh University in She Academy in At the forefront was Louyse Army Hospitals.
She was midwife to Queen Marie Buchan on her behalf when the University Senate de Medici through seven deliveries and wrote a major proposed withholding her degree on the grounds of treatise on obstetrics in , the most comprehen- her apparent youth, and later on her entry into Army sive since that by Trotula.
It was based on personal service, when the physical examination was waived. She performed a successful caesarean operation. She was also gave instruction on cleanliness and on avoiding appointed Inspector-General of Hospitals for Upper cross-infections.
The University of were blocked: no dispensary or hospital would allow Edinburgh accepted women as medical students in her to see patients and she turned to Europe for In alism and soothing diplomacy among male support- the British Medical Council was formed, and ers.
The name appeared on the British Medical Register in first women to qualify in medicine were Mary From the Far East woman at first trained grounds that she was a woman.
Across the USA the medical in all medical faculties in Singapore, Malaysia schools began to open their doors to women by the and Thailand.
She and elected its first female Fellow in In India there was a great She became the first woman to gain a medical degree need for qualified women doctors to treat segregated at the University of Paris in , after the university women.
Mary Scharlieb, from Madras, one of the first opened its medical school to women in The first Indian girls entered were reported in the newspapers and her treatment LSMW in and returned to serve in civil hospitals gradually changed public opinion.
It took an Act of demands. The conduct and courage of medical volunteered and served in the medical services, also women in the First World War was one of the most women from Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
After 7 years in Africa she was moved to the War Office. By the War Office began to recruit equal pay.
The British women civilian doctors had women doctors for service abroad. By the end of the testing medical duties in many theatres of war; some war there were 85 women doctors serving in Malta, served with the Resistance in the occupied territories.
The present position is missions. The war made it easier for women to be that women are strongly represented among medical accepted by the medical hospitals and increased their students and graduates, less strongly in junior posts, experience of surgery, epidemic diseases, war and hardly at all at senior levels in the medical wounds and the effects of war gases.
After the war, as their leading nuclear physi- bipedalism. After served as a radiographer, then inadequately pro- his marriage, he took the name Joliot-Curie.
Their tected against radiation; later, she became a victim, personalities were very different, he an extrovert, like her mother, of leukaemia, fairly certainly she very diffident.
Only in did they begin to because of exposure to radiation, which eventually collaborate in research, with notable success.
They killed them both. He advanced Radium Institute and a director of the French symmetrical groups, and reduced the linear differ- Atomic Energy Commission.
Her work in the s ential equations of order n to a group theoretic with Joliot led them in late to make the first problem. Jordan inspired Klein and Lie to pursue a novel radioisotope of phosphorus.
Similar methods novel research on group theory. Topology also then led them and others to make a range of novel interested Jordan and he devised homological or radioisotopes, some of which have proved of great combinatorial topology by investigating symme- value in research, in medicine and in industry.
Halley had proposed from that the age of At 23 Jordan collaborated with Born and then the Earth since water condensed on it could be Heisenberg, setting out the theory of quantum deduced from the rate at which the salt content of mechanics using matrix methods Another area in which he published was eternal.
Joly quency proportional to the voltage is produced. He went on to use these microscopic halos Josephson had used. The application of a small present in rocks of differing geological age to show magnetic field across the junction sensitively alters that radioactive decay had occurred at a constant the current.
Such Josephson junctions have been rate during geological time. Josephson shared a Nobel Prize in Polytechnique, and as an engineer pursued mathe- Joule grew up in a wealthy Manchester brewing matics in his spare time.
At 35 he joined the math- family, a shy and delicate child. He was attracted to physics and espe- Jordan absorbed the ideas of the ill-fated Galois cially to the problems of heat and began experi- and developed a rigorous theory of finite, and then mental work in a laboratory near the brewery.
The amount of mechanical work required to produce a given amount of heat was determined by Joule in He measured the small amount of heat produced in water by the rotation of paddles driven by falling weights.
Joule also produced a paper on the kinetic theory of gases that included the first estimation of the speed of gas molecules He was over-modest and made himself into an assistant to Thomson rather than following his own lines of thought; and he became unwell when he was 55 and did little more afterwards.
Joule remains one of the foremost experimenta- James Joule lists of his century; his main work was done before he was 30, on one problem of great importance, the When he was 18, Joule began his study of the heat mechanical equivalent of heat.
He attacked this developed by an electric current and by he had with ingenuity, made precise measurements and deduced the law connecting the current and resis- tenaciously located sources of error.
Less under Bunsen and Kirchhoff. Dewar had liquefied nitrogen, Russian physicist: experimenter on high magnetic and by cooling hydrogen with this and using the fields and low temperatures.
Kamerlingh-Onnes used an improved another, Kapitsa studied electrical engineering at apparatus and similar principles.
In his first wife and two children died of a gas when it expands through a nozzle , he in the famine following the revolution, and in obtained liquid helium, which he found to boil at the unhappy young man visited England and 4.
Both were energetic, outspoken and tal- solidify. In he found that metals such as mer- ented experimentalists, who formed a high regard cury, tin and lead at very low temperatures became for each other.
Kapitsa became a popular figure, superconductors, with near-zero electrical resis- adventurous, ingenious and with wide-ranging tance.
He won the Nobel Prize in for his work interests. A theoretical explanation pendently, on the problem of obtaining very high of superconductivity had to wait until the work of magnetic fields.
For this he designed and built cir- Bardeen and others in By he Although primarily known for his work in philos- could in this way obtain field strengths of up to ophy, in Kant proposed the nebular hypothe- 50 T, which he used in studies on the properties of sis for the formation of the solar system that was materials in high fields.
The electrical resistance of later to be developed and made famous by Laplace. His work went so well that a new labo- and supersonic flight, was important in enabling ratory building the Mond was built for his work the USA to become a world leader in the aerospace and opened in He had the sculptor Eric Gill industry.
By his new vitamins. Later, his friend Landau was able A Werner. His DPhil work with him was in in- to explain these properties of helium II.
In he suc- protests from the West. His equipment was sent to him from In he began work on natural pigments, con- Cambridge, and his wife he had remarried was centrating on the carotenoids, which are complex allowed to return to the UK for their children.
Kapitsa protested forcefully and success- light-sensitive pigment of the eye. In the s his fully: Landau, unusually, survived.
He firmed in many cases by synthesis eg of vitamin A1, did not work on atomic weapons, and wrote to C20H29OH, in He also worked on other vita- Stalin in criticizing the competence of the mins B2 and E , on alkaloids and on coenzymes.
Soon he was permitted visitors, and in his 70s was German organic chemist; founder of structural allowed to travel. In he had been elected a organic chemistry, and proposer of ring structure Fellow of the Royal Society the first foreigner for for benzenoid compounds.
Later he studied in Paris and London. He tices. He also proposed the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at CalTech and was a that carbon atoms could be linked together to form leading figure in a number of international scien- stable chains, which was a new and vital idea.
After he was largely in the It only needed the further idea, gradually devel- USA. From the diagram, in turn, new destructive vibrations.
The destruction by wind of properties could be predicted; and so these molec- the Tecoma Narrows Bridge in also had this ular structures became the fruitful focus of every cause.
This was his proposal of , that the six-carbon nucleus of benzene consisted of not a chain but a closed ring of carbon atoms.
In benzene each carbon atom carries a hydrogen atom, but one or more of these can be replaced by other atoms or groups to give a vast range of compounds see dia- gram.
During the First World War he isolated from the thyroid gland a new amino acid, thyroxin. Kendall went on to study the hormones of the cortex outer part of the adrenal glands.
During the Second especially, experimental work on this basis pushed World War there was a belief that the Germans ahead.
The rumour textbook Since then, corticosteroids have been motion: that the squares of the planetary periods much used to treat inflammatory, allergic and are proportional to the cubes of their mean dis- rheumatic diseases.
In the Nobel Prize for tances from the Sun. These three laws gave a sound medicine or physiology was shared by Kendall, basis for all later work on the solar system.
He later Seminary at Graz in Austria. In , having been became a lecturer in mathematics at the Free forced to leave his teaching post due to the reli- Church Training College for Teachers in Glasgow, gious persecution of Protestants, he was invited to continuing his research in his free time.
Brahe died 2 years his name. In he showed that birefringence later, leaving Kepler his year archive of astro- double refraction occurs in some materials such nomical observations.
In , having failed to fit as glass when subjected to a high electric field. He also dis- equal areas in equal times.
A fine ferromagnetic materials. He noted that many species of peppered moth that in the midth-c were light in colour had became dark by the s.
He deduced that the darkening melanism was related to the darkening of the tree stems on which the moths remained by day, by industrial smoke.
This would cause dark forms to survive predation by birds more successfully. To test his idea, he released light and dark forms of one moth Biston betularia in large numbers in both a polluted wood near Birmingham and an unpolluted wood.
Recapture of many of the moths after an interval confirmed that the light form survived best in the unpolluted wood and the converse in the Birmingham wood.
This result, claimed to confirm Darwinism, was later seen to be statistically inadequate. Clearly such silicon chips containing millions of transis- tors have unlocked pervasive economic and social consequences, above all enhancing existing tech- nologies in many industrial sectors.
Cheaply man- ufactured on a crystalline silicon wafer, they are the building blocks of a myriad of electronic prod- ucts including computers, microprocessors and mobile phones.
The era began in when Kilby had just graduated and had joined Globe Union Inc. In July he invented a means of making a single transistor on a wafer-like sheet of crystalline germanium, using gold connections.
Once miniaturized, vast num- bers of electronic components could be manu- factured in a process similar to photographic development and printing.
The density, power, Har Gobind Khorana speed and low cost of such integrated circuits have increased exponentially ever since.
Kilby has filed he had studied in Cambridge; the synthesis of over sixty patents and became the director of engi- nucleotide coenzymes. This refers to the minium connections, which is the method used fact that the four bases A,C,G and T present in DNA since for bulk production.
Kilby shared the Nobel Prize for physics in was known by the late s. Early in his research career he established the dictionary, by his synthesis of all attempted to make compounds of silicon analo- the 64 codons.
This was an essential step in the fur- gous to some of the familiar organic compounds ther development of molecular biology. It turns out based on carbon; specifically he tried to make that the first two bases in a codon triplet are the ketone analogues.
His actual product was a poly- main determinants of its specificity. He foresaw no practical use for with nucleotide base pairs.
This family of polymeric organosilicon of the monolithic integrated circuit the microchip. A key step was the dis- senior electrical engineer.
This career theory of electrical networks. Light from the source passes through an adjustable slit, and the collimator lens forms a parallel beam.
This is refracted and dispersed by a prism and the resulting spectrum is observed through a telescope fitted with cross-hairs and mounted to rotate horizontally, so that line positions in the emission spectrum can be measured.
The two laws are black body. He demon- speed of light, and the unification of static and cur- strated that these bands correspond to orbital rent electricity.
The now extinct. Talbot less in place of seconds or minutes, and so moving used paper sensitized with silver salts, and found that subjects could be photographed.
In he discovered, by chance, the were possible to cause these natural images to latent image; exposure of his sensitized paper in a imprint themselves durably and remain fixed upon camera for only a few minutes gave a result which the paper!
These made, in , a very small picture of the lattice last two steps were due to others; both had been window of the small library at his family home, publicly suggested by his friend J F W Herschel in Lacock Abbey.
Talbot made ing a window of a family home, photographed from some of his photographs translucent by waxing the inside.
Modern lenses with several glass elements give still supported on glass, heavy and breakable, good correction of optical defects while still admitting and cameras were usually wooden, large and enough light for short exposures, and often allow a tripod-mounted.
Autofocus devices use infrared film-handling simple by mounting the sensitive sensors to allow automatic adjustment of the lens-to- gelatin emulsion on a strip of flexible plastic film distance, suitable for subjects at different dis- originally celluloid , which could be protected from tances.
With EDISON, Eastman also The early photographers were as much concerned devised the perforated plastic film that made with contact photography as with camera work, and cine-photography a practical success.
A CCD charge- and cine photography in its first century, but coupled device whose surface is made of tiny light- images in colour were always a target.
Herschel sensitive pixels captures the image. Only after the Second World War did puter disc or card. The image can be manipulated by colour become popular, using ingenious thin a PC in many ways: it can be scanned, colours sandwiches of coloured organic dyes linked with changed, e-mailed, included in a web page, inkjet- the sensitive silver layer and with development printed, etc.
Resolution is determined by the number methods complex enough to be carried out of pixels in the CCD: 3 megapixels in a mid-price normally in a commercial laboratory.
Talbot was almost alone in ity followed, with Tartaglia emerging as the loser. A century passed before Galileo showed that Talbot patented his calotype process in and the trajectory is a paraboloid.
She attended photography in the UK, but by the pressure of Radcliffe College and the University of California, protest led him to relax his grip somewhat.
She joined the faculty in making pictures by light except the daguerrotype, and took charge of the cardiac clinic of the and it was said to be surprising that his claims did Harriet Lane Home for Invalid Children, remaining not include the Sun as a light source.
Only when in there until her retirement in In dion process did photography really advance. By Mach time there were few medical remedies for children was using this method to photograph bullets in with congenital heart defects.
Deducing that the flight. As usual he was a belligerent lit- aorta that normally went to the arm and connect it igant in this field, in part because of his erroneous to the lungs.
By he knew a method for solving throughout his career, when he worked on aircraft cubic equations, which he confided to Cardano design in the first, and on explosive shock waves in under a pledge of secrecy.
Cardano much improved the second. From until his retirement in and extended the method and published it credit- he held a professorship of physics.
He conducted a ing Tartaglia in his book Ars magna The Great Skill, great range of research in classical physics, always Cardano found all three roots of a cubic and with originality, and chiefly on the mechanics of suspected correctly that three roots always exist.
In new pulsars using the giant m fixed radio tele- it occurred to him that metals and other crys- scope at Arecibo in Puerto Rico.
These faults he ular pulses at radio wavelengths as they rotate. Their precise are deformed, by comparison with the resilience of study of the slightly varying period showed that a perfect crystal.
Work on the strength and the they had detected the first binary pulsar, consisting deformability of metals has since been much of two bodies of comparable mass and small size shaped by these ideas.
His proudest plasma physics, but Taylor continued to study the award was the Royal Cruising Club Cup for , binary pulsar. By the s it was widely agreed that won for his trip to the Lofoten Isles, with his wife the force of gravity must be transmitted by gravita- and a friend, in his When he tional waves, which could also be considered as carried out an experiment to see whether electrons massless particles, gravitons just as light can be are diffracted like waves the apparatus was sealed thought of as waves or as photons, depending on the into a light-excluding box and left untouched for experimental situation.
Taylor realized that the 2 weeks, so that he could go on a sailing holiday and two heavy bodies of the binary pulsar were close return to the results.
By Taylor could Educated at Harvard, Taylor held a post at the report detection of a measurable change, in good University of Massachusetts at Amherst from agreement with this figure.
Taylor and Hulse shared until when he returned to Harvard as profes- the Nobel Prize for physics in Weber destroy incoming nuclear missiles from the USSR.
His detection system used 3 tonne alu- and the political collapse of the USSR. In so far as minium bars, hung in pairs several hundred miles this collapse owed much to the cost of competing apart, which responded to graviton events by with the USA in military matters, the programme vibrating: these results were not accepted by some was arguably a success.
They found that this was a feasible and cheap stratosphere. In , using motor. He named this part of the own.
Soon afterwards he developed the alternating atmosphere the stratosphere believing that its current induction motor, eliminating the commu- steady temperature was due to undisturbed layers, tator and sparking brushes required by DC motors.
He went on to show realizing that it could be transmitted and gener- that the tropopause where troposphere and ated far more efficiently than the then commonly stratosphere meet is much higher in the tropics.
In he used this device to produce an Educated in Budapest and in Germany, Teller was one of the many scientists who left Germany in In he, Szilard and Wigner met with a Government committee to discuss the possibility of an atomic bomb; afterwards he worked with Fermi and Szilard in Chicago on the first atomic reactor, and then in he went to Los Alamos to work on the first atomic fission bombs.
By then, he and others had considered the possibility of a fusion bomb H-bomb , but he discontinued this work when the war ended in However President Truman approved H-bomb production in and the work was largely guided by Teller; a successful device was exploded in He was increasingly inter- self in , afterwards having the advantage of ested in transmitting power over large distances immunity.
Theophrastus [theeohfrastuhs] c. The SI unit of magnetic flux density, the tesla Greek philosopher and botanist: often described as T , is named after him.
The school did well under him, and may Ionian Greek merchant and philosopher; an early have had students; he secured botanical infor- geometer; pioneer seeker of general physical prin- mation from their home areas to add to his own ciples underlying nature.
He wrote on many subjects, but his Thales was born in Miletos in modern Turkey most important surviving books are on botany.
Plant propaga- some of the many accounts of his skill lack credi- tion methods, and the effect on growth of soil and bility. But it is certainly possible that he developed climate, are also accurately described by him.
His some general theorems in geometry, understood ideas were usually sound, although he believed in similar triangles and was able to find the distance spontaneous generation, in accord with the views of a ship from shore and the height of a building of his time.
Such deductive mathematical His classificatory interests extended to people; arguments were systematized years later by his best known book, Characters, is a series of Euclid.
Thompson, Benjamin, Count Rumford see whole was a flat disc floating in water. He was thus marine biologist and oceanographer: postulated a pioneer of later Greek science, and his attitudes the existence of a mid-Atlantic ridge and of oceanic are still with us.
Later Greek thinkers gave him the circulation. He took part in sev- virologist: developed 17D vaccine against yellow eral deep-sea expeditions, leading the 5-year cir- fever.
Foundation in New York in He found many mouse many times, a safe and standardized vaccine animals by dredging at depth, and diverse temper- could be mass-produced.
On injection into human atures at similar submarine depths in different patients this induces yellow fever infection in an regions.
The expedition also showed that a clay extremely mild form, with the benefit that it is fol- bottom is usual at great depths and that nodules of lowed by immunity from the full disease because nearly pure manganese dioxide MnO2 are found antibodies have been generated in the blood.
This on the sea-floor. On the a major human disease and completed that work basis of temperature measurements Thomson pos- begun by Reed, who had shown in that the dis- tulated the presence of oceanic circulation and the ease was probably due to a virus and was transmitted existence of a mid-Atlantic ridge, but the latter was through mosquito bites.
Theiler won the Nobel Prize not confirmed until He survived the first ematics, physics and chemistry instead, as he could year of the First World War in the infantry and in not afford the charge then made to become an was attached to the Royal Flying Corps to work apprentice engineer.
He did well and won a scholar- on problems of aircraft stability. In he returned ship to Trinity College, Cambridge He was exceptionally well- rings of varying intensity about the incident beam.
Several German physicists believed In Thomson moved to Imperial College, that cathode rays were waves, and Hertz had tried London. By he was aware of the possibility of a to show that they could not be particles, because uranium fission bomb being developed, very possi- in his experiments the cathode rays were not bly by Germany.
During the Second World War he deflected by an electric field. However, Thomson chaired the Maud Committee, advising the British repeated the experiment in a better vacuum, in Government on the atomic bomb, and in July which there was no polarizable air to mask the elec- reported that such a bomb could be made using tric field, and demonstrated that electric fields separated uranium The co-ordinating role on would deflect cathode rays Having shown the bomb project then passed to Chadwick, while that the rays were made up of negatively charged Thomson became scientific advisor to Canada, and particles, he proceeded to use their deflection then in to the Air Ministry in Britain.
Widely liked another. In April he revealed this discovery of and good company, his life-long enthusiasms were a new particle. Developing this classic series of sailing and model boats, which he made himself, experiments, Thomson then measured the charge e including their armament; he was particularly by allowing the particles to strike water droplets pleased with his working model submarines.
He obtained the same value as physicist: discovered the electron. Its discovery opened the way for the study of atomic structure by Rutherford, who succeeded him as Cavendish Professor.
This was done by deflecting the positive rays in electric and magnetic fields a method now called mass spectrometry.
The method allowed him to J J Thomson aged 22, about the time he took his first discover that neon had two isotopes, neon and degree.
In the evacuated tube, a high volt- age applied to the cathode and anode causes cathode rays a stream of electrons to be emitted from the cathode.
A nar- row beam is selected by two small holes, and forms a bright spot on the screen. The beam is deflected by a magnetic field, but can be restored to its normal position by an electric field applied to the two horizontal plates.
Thomson becoming too non-classical for his taste. Thomson was mass spectrometry, proved so valuable to chemists. One of his achievements was to have built up the Cavendish Laboratory as the foremost in experimental physics, with seven of his research assistants subsequently winning Nobel Prizes.
To his great pleasure his son G P Thomson was also a Nobel Prize winner, for demonstrating that the electron possessed both par- ticle-like and wave-like behaviour.
Two of his children became distinguished physicists and another did well in medicine. Young William studied science in Glasgow from the age of 10, and later was sent to Cambridge.
He graduated when he was 21 and went to Paris to work on heat with Regnault, returning the next year to become professor of natural philosophy ie physics at Glasgow.
He held the job for 53 years. While still an undergraduate he gave a math- ematical demonstration of the analogy between William Thomson later Lord Kelvin aged Throughout this period, it was the scientific Although the Internet and the World Wide Web have community that was both developing the technology, become synonymous with global retailing and 'e- and constituting its primary user, benefiting through commerce', both were originally developed in being able to work together on projects including response to the needs of scientists to share scientific the Internet development regardless of geographical data and collaborate better.
Throughout most of its separation. As the number of computers connected nearly forty-year history, the Internet has not only to the Internet mushroomed during the late s, it been developed by computer scientists, but its evolu- became necessary to find a way of maintaining the tion has been heavily shaped by collaboration on 'address book' of names of the networked comput- science projects.
At the same time new and improved communi- seriously considered. Contrary to a widespread myth, cations hardware in the form of 'gateways' and this research was never initiated by military require- 'routers' were developed to handle the new network ments for robust communications networks that traffic, which was by then growing at an exponential could withstand nuclear war, although later on it rate.
In , two computers in Massachusetts and to spread to other communities for daily communica- California were connected via telephone line, making tion.
At this time, communication was already largely the first wide-area network WAN ever built. Two by email and the ability to access files on one com- years later, after the realization that three separate puter from another was widely used, but the Internet research groups at MIT in Cambridge, MA, RAND in lacked the graphical interfaces that we are familiar Santa Monica, CA, and the National Physical with today.
Even so, the WWW was tions. The izing access to the net. Thus the Internet ments. Berners-Lee also developed the concept of the could include radio and satellite networks, as well as Universal Resource Locator URL , through which different types of telephone-based networks.
This every document or 'page' on the web has a distinct required the development of better packet-switching and unique 'address'.
A early s. Over million people in the the first Internet billionaire. DM research hitherto impossible, but also it has brought ing small currents.
The SI unit of tempera- from a small river, the Kelvin, passing through the ture is the kelvin K.
Independently of Clausius he university. He was a major figure in the creation of formulated the second law of thermodynamics, the Institute of Electrical Engineers.
He worked with which prompted him to develop navigational instru- Joule on the relation of heat and work the first law ments; and his large Glasgow house was among the of thermodynamics , and also with him found the first to be lit by electricity in Thomson worked on the theory of the Thomson did much to develop heat theory.
He rec- was three years before he secured his paper; he ognized that his method assumed that no continu- then made its ideas widely known, and used and ing heat supply was present: his results were about developed them further.
Thomson proposed in 10 times lower than present values, which now take The Agamemnon laying the first completed transatlantic telegraph cable in it survived for three months.
A durable cable was laid in Thomson was an unusual scientist; his energy, enthusiasm and talent made him dominate British physics in the later 19th-c and he did much to move the focus of physics from Europe to Britain.
He was always generous with ideas and in giving credit to others. His productivity was vast; papers, many books and patents, covering the whole of physics no-one since has ranged so widely with sundry excursions into other sciences.
He had some oddi- ties, of course. He detested vector methods and gave himself much mathematical toil in avoiding them.
He did not normally work on one problem for more than a month, and his results were worked out in green pocket books from which he tore sheets for publication.
After his first wife died in he con- tinued to have a great flow of ideas in physics, but he lost the ability to select good ideas from bad, and S C C Ting he pursued some strange notions like the theory of the ether; and his opposition to the admission of Ting conducted an experiment at the Brookhaven women to Cambridge.
He was probably the first National Laboratory synchrotron in which protons scientist to become wealthy through science.
This ethologist: a pioneer in study of animal behaviour. The detected, and Ting and Richter shared the Nobel emphasis of this was to examine the patterns of Prize for physics in His now-classic studies of the social habits of Tiselius was a pupil and then assistant to Sved- herring gulls and the mating of sticklebacks berg, and like him had his career in Uppsala, work- showed that key elements of behaviour follow a ing mainly on proteins.
Since these carry electric stereotyped pattern and can depend largely on par- charges, they can be made to migrate in solution by ticular features.
For example, the gull chick pecks applying an electric field. Also in these gulls, the method has since been widely used.
He was awarded in part seem designed to avoid actual fighting and injury. His wide-ranging work included study of a Nobel Prize in He organic chemist: achieved synthesis of important shared a Nobel Prize in His worked on synthesis of the anthocyanins, which work in elementary-particle physics began at the colour plant petals and fruits, and his chemical European Organization for Nuclear Research in interests focused thereafter on organic natural Geneva CERN and Columbia University, where he products.
Next in London at the Lister Institute he became an associate professor at He also led a devised syntheses of tocopherol vitamin E and of research group at DESY, the German synchrotron thiamin vitamin B1 : the latter became the preferred project in Hamburg, and from worked at commercial route.
He also worked on the consti- Massachusetts Institute of Technology. When the results of Percival Lowell, who predicted its existence.
In the Second then president of the university World War he worked on war gases, which were Like others, Tomonaga started to develop a rela- never used in action.
Most of the Toddlers joined him tivistic theory of the quantum mechanics of an when he moved to Cambridge in His most important work was Dyson.
Tomonaga realized the value of a theory on the nucleic acids DNA and RNA where he and that could describe high-energy subatomic particles his team devised methods of making the units and he was responsible for the idea that two parti- nucleotides from which the nucleic acids were cles interact by exchanging a third virtual particle later synthesized.
This laid essential groundwork between them. The interaction is then like the for the results of Crick and Watson in which momentum exchange when one rugby player revealed the chemical basis of genetics and so passes the ball to another.
Todd won an unshared Nobel Prize discoverer of atmospheric pressure. This led to his in advice to governments and associated public being appointed assistant to Galileo, whom he sub- commitments.
This Too poor to attend college,Tombaugh was a keen appears to have come about from an attempt to amateur astronomer and built his own 9 in 23 cm solve the problem of why water could not be telescope.
After repeatedly photographing pressure, he set about verifying the idea by sealing the sky along the plane of the ecliptic, and checking a glass tube at one end, filling it with mercury and for differences between successive photographs with inverting it with the open end in a dish of mercury.
Afterwards he continued the search for possi- was formed above it; the weight of the column was ble further planets, but although he discovered being balanced by the weight of the atmosphere.
He over asteroids, he found no other planets. Tour, Charles Cagniard de la see Cagniard de la tilted, it is much smaller than the other outer plan- Tour.
Pluto covered the theory of the maser and produced the is named after the Greek god of the underworld, first working examples. He began work at the Bell Telephone astronomer: discovered interstellar light absorption.
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