Millenium Bug Zur Person
Das JahrProblem, auch als. Das JahrProblem, auch als Millennium-Bug oder Y2K-Bug bezeichnet, ist ein Computerproblem, das im Wesentlichen durch die Behandlung von Jahreszahlen als zweistellige Angabe innerhalb von Computersystemen entstanden ist. Millennium-Bug Die Nacht, in der wir alle noch einmal davonkamen. Selten schien die Katastrophe so nah: Ein Fehler in der Digitaltechnik. Das JahrProblem, auch als Y2K-Bug oder Millennium-Bug bezeichnet, hatte Ende der er-Jahre für Aufregung in der IT-Welt gesorgt. Im Jahr nicht ausgetauschte Computersysteme sind wieder anfällig für den Millennium-Bug Foto: united archives/imago. BERLIN.
Vor 20 Jahren war die Panik groß: Der Millenium-Bug, auch als Y2K-Bug oder JahrProblem bekannt, stand kurz bevor. Das JahrProblem, auch als. Das JahrProblem, auch als Millennium-Bug oder Y2K-Bug bezeichnet, ist ein Computerproblem, das im Wesentlichen durch die Behandlung von Jahreszahlen als zweistellige Angabe innerhalb von Computersystemen entstanden ist.
Secondly, some programmers had misunderstood the Gregorian calendar rule that states years that are exactly divisible by are not leap years , assuming that the year would not be a leap year.
In reality, there is a rule in the Gregorian calendar system that states years divisible by are leap years — thus making a leap year.
Correcting all of this, however, was not the largest part of the problem. Companies and organisations in some countries, but not all, checked, fixed, and upgraded their computer systems to address the anticipated problem.
Y2K is a numeronym and was the common abbreviation for the year software problem. The abbreviation combines the letter Y for "year", the number 2 and a capitalized version of k for the SI unit prefix kilo meaning ; hence, 2K signifies It was also named the "Millennium Bug" because it was associated with the popular rather than literal roll-over of the millennium , even though most of the problems could have occurred at the end of any ordinary century.
Computerworld ' s three-page "Doomsday " article by Peter de Jager was called "the information-age equivalent of the midnight ride of Paul Revere" by The New York Times.
The first recorded mention of the Year Problem on a Usenet newsgroup occurred on 18 January by poster Spencer Bolles. There were other contenders.
Y2K just came off my fingertips. Since programs could simply prefix "19" to the year of a date, most programs internally used, or stored on disc or tape, data files where the date format was six digits, in the form MMDDYY, MM as two digits for the month, DD as two digits for the day, and YY as two digits for the year.
As space on disc and tape was also expensive, this also saved money by reducing the size of stored data files and data bases.
Some programs, when facing two digit years, could not distinguish between and Dire warnings at times were in the mode of:.
Options on the De Jager Year Index, "the first index enabling investors to manage risk associated with the Special committees were set up by governments to monitor remedial work and contingency planning , particularly by crucial infrastructures such as telecommunications, utilities and the like, to ensure that the most critical services had fixed their own problems and were prepared for problems with others.
While some commentators and experts argued that the coverage of the problem largely amounted to scaremongering ,  it was only the safe passing of the main " event horizon " itself, 1 January , that fully quelled public fears.
Some experts who argued that scaremongering was occurring, such as Ross Anderson , professor of security engineering at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory , have since claimed that despite sending out hundreds of press releases about research results suggesting that the problem was not likely to be as big a problem as some had suggested, they were largely ignored by the media.
The practice of using two-digit dates for convenience predates computers, but was never a problem until stored dates were used in calculations.
In the first half of the 20th century, well before the computer era, business data processing was done using unit record equipment and punched cards , most commonly the column variety employed by IBM, which dominated the industry.
Many tricks were used to squeeze needed data into fixed-field character records. Saving two digits for every date field was significant in this effort.
In the s, computer memory and mass storage were scarce and expensive. Early core memory cost one dollar per bit. Over time the punched cards were converted to magnetic tape and then disc files, but the structure of the data usually changed very little.
Data was still input using punched cards until the mids. Machine architectures, programming languages and application designs were evolving rapidly.
Neither managers nor programmers of that time expected their programs to remain in use for many decades. The realisation that databases were a new type of program with different characteristics had not yet come.
There were exceptions, of course. The first person known to publicly address this issue was Bob Bemer , who had noticed it in as a result of work on genealogical software.
He spent the next twenty years trying to make programmers, IBM , the government of the United States and the ISO aware of the problem, with little result.
In the s the brokerage industry began to address this issue, mostly because of bonds with maturity dates beyond the year Despite magazine articles on the subject from onward, the majority of programmers and managers only started recognising Y2K as a looming problem in the mids, but even then, inertia and complacency caused it to be mostly unresolved until the last few years of the decade.
In , Erik Naggum was instrumental in ensuring that internet mail used four digit representations of years by including a strong recommendation to this effect in the internet host requirements document RFC While using 3 digit years and 3 digit dates within that year was used by some, others chose to use the number of days since a fixed date, such as 1 January Embedded systems with similar date logic were expected to malfunction and cause utilities and other crucial infrastructure to fail.
Saving space on stored dates persisted into the Unix era, with most systems representing dates to a single bit word, typically representing dates as elapsed seconds from some fixed date , which causes the similar Y2K38 problem.
Storage of a combined date and time within a fixed binary field is often considered a solution, but the possibility for software to misinterpret dates remains because such date and time representations must be relative to some known origin.
Rollover of such systems is still a problem but can happen at varying dates and can fail in various ways. For example:. This date overflowed the bit field that had been used in the Decsystem 10 operating systems.
There were numerous problems and crashes related to this bug while an alternative format was developed. Even before 1 January arrived, there were also some worries about 9 September albeit less than those generated by Y2K.
It was thus possible that database programs might act on the records containing unknown dates on that day. Data entry operators commonly entered into required fields for an unknown future date, e.
While fears arose that some programs might unexpectedly terminate on that date, the bug was more likely to confuse computer operators than machines.
Normally, a year is a leap year if it is evenly divisible by four. A year divisible by , however, is not a leap year in the Gregorian calendar unless it is also divisible by For example, was a leap year, but , and were not.
Some programs may have relied on the oversimplified rule that a year divisible by four is a leap year. This method works fine for the year because it is a leap year , and will not become a problem until , when older legacy programs will likely have long since been replaced.
Other programs contained incorrect leap year logic, assuming for instance that no year divisible by could be a leap year. An assessment of this leap year problem including a number of real life code fragments appeared in Some systems had problems once the year rolled over to The main source of problems was confusion between hexadecimal number encoding and binary-coded decimal encodings of numbers.
Both hexadecimal and BCD encode the numbers 0—9 as 0x0—0x9. But BCD encodes the number 10 as 0x10, whereas hexadecimal encodes the number 10 as 0x0A; 0x10 interpreted as a hexadecimal encoding represents the number Windows Mobile is the first software reported to have been affected by this glitch; in some cases WM6 changes the date of any incoming SMS message sent after 1 January from the year "" to "".
The most important occurrences of such a glitch were in Germany, where upwards of 20 million bank cards became unusable, and with Citibank Belgium, whose digipass customer identification chips failed.
As a long integer in bit systems uses 64 bits, the problem does not realistically exist on bit systems that use the LP64 model.
Several very different approaches were used to solve the Year problem in legacy systems. Five of them follow:. When 1 January arrived, there were problems generally regarded as minor.
Some programs were not active at that moment and problems would only show up when they were invoked. Not all problems recorded were directly linked to Y2K programming in a causality ; minor technological glitches occur on a regular basis.
Some caused erroneous results, some caused machines to stop working, some caused date errors, and two caused malfunctions. Some software did not correctly recognise as a leap year, and so worked on the basis of the year having days.
On the last day of day these systems exhibited various errors. These were generally minor, apart from reports of some Norwegian trains that were delayed until their clocks were put back by a month.
Some software used a process called date windowing to fix the issue by interpreting years as and as As a result, a new wave of glitches started appearing in , including parking meters in New York City refusing to accept credit cards, issues with Novitus point of sale units, some utility companies printing bills listing the year , and the video game WWE 2K20 experiencing glitches.
Although only two digits are allocated for the birth year in the Bulgarian national identification number , the year problem and subsequently the Y2K problem were addressed by the use of unused values above 12 in the month range.
For all persons born before , the month is stored as the calendar month plus 20, and for all persons born after , the month is stored as the calendar month plus Norway and Finland changed their national identification number , to indicate the century in which a person was born.
In both countries, the birth year was historically indicated by two digits only. This numbering system had already given rise to a similar problem, the " Year problem ", which arose due to problems distinguishing between people born in the 20th and 19th centuries.
Y2K fears drew attention to an older issue, while prompting a solution to a new problem. Romania also changed its national identification number in response to the Y2K problem, due to the birth year being represented by only two digits.
Before , the first digit, which shows the person's gender, was 1 for males and 2 for females.
Starting from 1 January , the Romanian national identification number starts with 5 for males and 6 for females. This put Uganda in the "top 20" out of national governments, and on a par with the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Japan, and ahead of Germany, Italy, Austria, Switzerland which were rated as only "somewhat informative".
The report said that "Countries which disclose more Y2k information will be more likely to maintain public confidence in their own countries and in the international markets.
The British government made regular assessments of the progress made by different sectors of business towards becoming Y2K-compliant and there was wide reporting of sectors which were laggards.
Companies and institutions were classified according to a traffic light scheme ranging from green "no problems" to red "grave doubts whether the work can be finished in time".
Many organisations finished far ahead of the deadline. In , the United States government responded to the Y2K threat by passing the Year Information and Readiness Disclosure Act, by working with private sector counterparts in order to ensure readiness, and by creating internal continuity of operations plans in the event of problems and set limits to certain potential liabilities of companies with respect to disclosures about their Year program.
The US Government followed a three-part approach to the problem: 1 outreach and advocacy, 2 monitoring and assessment, and 3 contingency planning and regulation.
GOV, many of which have become inaccessible in the years since Most industries had contingency plans that relied upon the internet for backup communications.
However, as no federal agency had clear authority with regard to the internet at this time it had passed from the US Department of Defense to the US National Science Foundation and then to the US Department of Commerce , no agency was assessing the readiness of the internet itself.
The U. Government also established the Center for Year Strategic Stability as a joint operation with the Russian Federation. It was a liaison operation designed to mitigate the possibility of false positive readings in each nation's nuclear attack early warning systems.
Funding was provided by the World Bank, and Bruce W. McConnell was appointed as director. IY2KCC's mission was to "promote increased strategic cooperation and action among governments, peoples, and the private sector to minimize adverse Y2K effects on the global society and economy.
The Y2K issue was a major topic of discussion in the late s and as such showed up in most popular media. A variety of fringe groups and individuals such as those within some fundamentalist religious organizations, survivalists , cults , anti-social movements, self-sufficiency enthusiasts, communes and those attracted to conspiracy theories , embraced Y2K as a tool to engender fear and provide a form of evidence for their respective theories.
End-of-the-world scenarios and apocalyptic themes were common in their communication. Interest in the survivalist movement peaked in in its second wave for that decade, triggered by Y2K fears.
In the time before extensive efforts were made to rewrite computer programming codes to mitigate the possible impacts, some writers such as Gary North , Ed Yourdon , James Howard Kunstler ,  and Ed Yardeni anticipated widespread power outages, food and gasoline shortages, and other emergencies.
North and others raised the alarm because they thought Y2K code fixes were not being made quickly enough.
While a range of authors responded to this wave of concern, two of the most survival-focused texts to emerge were Boston on Y2K by Kenneth W.
Y2K was also exploited by some fundamentalist and charismatic Christian leaders throughout the Western world, particularly in North America and Australia.
In base alle stime del non solo il settore secondario e terziario erano a rischio del millennium bug, ma anche quello primario ; secondo l' Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'alimentazione e l'agricoltura , infatti, il bug avrebbe rischiato, per effetto indiretto, di ripercuotersi pesantemente sulle informazioni dell'andamento del mercato e della rete di distribuzione, sia di importo che di esporto.
In novembre e dicembre si verificarono diversi eventi, non a caso correlati al millennium bug.
Nei primi giorni di gennaio del , Bill Gates , il boss di Microsoft , espresse la propria opinione sul bug , invitando a non abbassare la guardia riguardo a futuri problemi, che avrebbero potuto creare disagi nel breve e lungo periodo.
Nonostante il millennium bug non abbia comportato alcuna apocalisse o fine del mondo , con solo alcuni problemi effettivamente accaduti ma circoscritti, molti sono stati gli studi alla base del fenomeno.
Parlando di allarmismo e prese di posizione governative, invece, alcune teorie del complotto hanno attribuito il caos e la paura scaturite dal millennium bug, come un efficace catalizzatore per un tentativo, mancato o meno, di instaurare uno stato di polizia e di controllo sociale sorretto dal Nuovo ordine mondiale.
Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. URL consultato il 24 marzo URL consultato l'8 settembre URL consultato il 25 settembre archiviato dall' url originale il 17 aprile URL consultato il 2 gennaio Una diagnosi in tre passi , su repubblica.
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